Varicose veins or varicose veins

It is a chronic venous disease, which is characterized by the thinning of their walls, the extension of the lumen and formation of the nodes. Found in 40% of women and 20% men.

This is a dangerous disease, primarily because of their complications. Improper or delayed treatment of evolving as formidable as thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, and bleeding from varices.Varicose veins Thrombosis (partial or full occlusion of the target vein by a blood clot) or thrombophlebitis (inflammatory disease of the venous wall in thrombosis) occurs suddenly, is not associated with physical activity. The swelling rapidly spreads to the lower limb and is accompanied by unbearable pain. Can occur redness or bruising, local tenderness of the skin. In the case of the separation of the clot with the blood it gets into the blood vessels of the lungs, and in the case of full or partial closure of the vessel can lead to serious illness - pulmonary embolism. This complication is frequently lethal. If you suspect these complications, you should immediately take a horizontal position, lift the leg up by phone to contact emergency medical assistance. When trauma to the dilated vessels may experience heavy bleeding. In this case, an urgent need to put the leg above the bleeding tourniquet (medical or improvised), enough to ensure that the bleeding has stopped, and urgently call the ambulance.

The weakness of the muscular layer of the venous wall and valvular incompetence be the reason that influenced the actions of the "muscle pump" the blood begins to flow in the opposite direction, down. This leads to increased pressure on the walls of blood vessels, further progression of the valve disease, enlargement of the lumen of veins and nodules. The muscle fibers of vein walls atrophy, disrupted nerve receptors that regulate venous tone, which in turn further enhances the manifestations of the venous insufficiency. Risk factors for the development of the disease are: genetic predisposition, pregnancy, obesity, daily for a long period of sitting or standing, activities related to lifting, systematic wearing of tight clothing, corsets, incorrect diet with insufficient intake of dietary fiber and vitamins violations of hormonal status.

Clinical manifestations

The main visible sign of varicose disease - saccular or cylindrical dilation of superficial veins. Varicose veins in the legs become branched, protrude above the surface of the skin in the legs and feet. Varices maximally expressed after a hard or long exercise. In the early stage of the disease concerned about fatigue, feeling of heaviness in the legs, burning, mild swelling, the severity of which the maximum after exercise. May experience temporary swelling, aching pain along the veins. Timely access to a specialist even at the initial stage will prevent further development of disease. With the progression of the disease is formed by chronic venous insufficiency.Sclerotherapy before and after

Diagnosis of varicose veins

The "gold" standard is considered to be diagnostic ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities, which are determined by the affected areas veins. This principle is based anatomic classification of varicose veins with an indication of the changed vessel. For example, the defeat of the great saphenous vein above or below the knee, small saphenous vein. When questionable data non-invasive methods resorted to surgical methods of investigation, e.g. venography (the injection of a contrast agent to assess the condition of the venous system).

The treatment of varicose veins

Non-surgical treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs gives good results only in the opening stages of the disease when skin manifestations are not strongly expressed and only moderately reduce the ability to work.

This is a surgical disease, complete cure is only possible after surgical treatment:

  1. Phlebectomy - surgical removal of varicose-expanded veins. The aim of the operation is the elimination of abnormal discharge of the blood by removing the main trunks of the great or small saphenous vein and ligation of the communicating veins. There are several types of surgery. They are applicable almost always, even in difficult cases. While all of these methods remove part of the vein that is affected and healthy segments of the veins are preserved. Vienna as if carefully peeled, not cut from cloth that also reduces surgical trauma. The same thing happens when using a surgical technique, and additionally this creates less bruising, since cold reduces spasm of the bleeding.
  2. Sclerotherapy - an introduction to vein special substance (sclerosant) which causes "caking" of the vein wall by the cessation of blood flow through it. As a consequence, no abnormal discharge of blood, eliminates the cosmetic defect, as Vienna collapses and becomes invisible. Sclerotherapy is effective only when the expansion of the small branches of the main trunks, which limits its application at high severity process. The advantage of sclerotherapy is the lack of scars, the need for hospitalization. After hardening of the veins specific rehabilitation is required.
  3. Laser coagulation - a method based on the destruction of the vein wall by the warm of the laser exposure, resulting in the "spike" of the venous lumen. Shown only if the extension veins are not more than 10 mm. the Method is associated with the anesthesia. Cosmetically preferred, but after vein removal requires early activation of the patient, and long-term elastic compression.